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    技術文章

    7篇*熱門的**學研究論文


    七篇*熱門的**學研究論文

    Top 7 immunology papers
    A snapshot of the most highly ranked articles in immunology, fromFaculty of 1000

    [Published 23rd November 2010 01:13 PM GMT]

    By Jef Akst

    1. New clue to self-tolerance
    Researchers identify a new population of regulatory T cells,important players in immunological self-tolerance, which can beinduced by cytokine interleukin IL-35. These iTr35 cells, which canthemselves make IL-35 and initiate the production of more iTr35cells, can suppress and regulate immune responses in a variety ofpathogenic models in mice, opening up a new direction in immunologyresearch and presenting possible therapeutic implications.

    L. W. Collison, et al., "IL-35-mediated induction of a potentregulatory T cell population," Nat Immunol, 2010. Evaluated byStephen Cobbold, University of Oxford; Stanley Perlman, Universityof Iowa. Free F1000 Evaluation


    Neutrophil immune cell engulfing anthrax bacteria
    Image: Wikimedia commons, Etxrge
    2. Another route to helper T
    T helper 17 cells, which are crucial for host defense andautoimmunity, can differentiate in the absence of TGF-β signaling,contrary to conventional wisdom on Th17 differentiation. Th17 cellsderived without TGF-β, however, are more pathogenic, suggesting thedifferentiation pathways may lead to different Th17 cell types.

    K. Ghoreschi, et al., "Generation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells in theabsence of TGF-beta signalling," Nature, 467:967-71, 2010.Evaluated by: Wuzhou Wan and Philip Murphy, National Institute ofAllergy and Infectious Diseases; Jeremy McAleer and Jay Kolls,Lousianna State University Health Sciences Centre; Robert Booth,Virobay Inc. Free F1000 Evaluation

    3. Natural killer cells adapt, too
    In addition to their known role in the innate immune system,hepatic natural killer (NK) cells can also generateantigen-specific responses with memory that persists in the absenceof the pathogens. These cells appear to act independently of T andB lymphocytes, the classical mediators of adaptive immunity,raising the interesting possibility of using NKs in vaccinedevelopment.

    S. Paust, et al., "Critical role for the chemokine receptor CXCR6in NK cell-mediated antigen-specific memory of haptens andviruses," Nat Immunol, 2010. Evaluated by: Sumi Rajagopalan andEric Long, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases;Eric Vivier, Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy. Free F1000Evaluation

    4. Key differentiation factor elucidated

    Researchers reveal details of how the aryl hydrocarbon receptor(AhR) regulates the differentiation of human regulatory T cells,and point to AhR as a potential target for mediating these celltypes in autoimmune diseases.

    R. Gandhi, et al., "Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptorinduces human type 1 regulatory T cell-like and Foxp3(+) regulatoryT cells," Nat Immunol, 11(9):846-53, 2010. Evaluated by: ByronVaughn, Moritz Schmelzle and Simon Robson, Beth Israel DeaconessMedical Center; Ru Zhou and Rachel Caspi, National Eye Institute,NIH. Free F1000 Evaluation

    5. Avoiding self destruction
    A new study provides clues to how a subset of CD8+ T cells helpsthe immune system avoid attacking self tissues and organs duringvigorous immune responses to pathogens -- they suppress the immuneresponse via their interactions with follicular T-helper cells.

    H.J. Kim, et al., "Inhibition of follicular T-helper cells byCD8(+) regulatory T cells is essential for self tolerance," Nature,467(7313):328-32, 2010. Evaluated by: Takeshi Tsubata, TokyoMedical and Dental University; Bryce A Binstadt, University ofMinnesota. Free F1000 Evaluation

    6. miRNA regulation in immunity
    Researchers identify a miRNA molecule expressed in Foxp3(+)regulatory T (Treg) cells that is critical to their ability tosuppress certain inflammatory responses.

    L.F. Lu, et al., "Function of miR-146a in controlling Tregcell-mediated regulation of Th1 responses," Cell, 142Devil:914-29, 2010. Evaluated by: Astar Winoto, University of California, Berkeley. Free F1000 Evaluation

    7. Complement-mediated asthma
    Interleukin 17A has previously been associated with severe asthma,but its exact role was unknown. In this paper, researchers detailthe pathway by which IL-17A mediates severe airwayhyperresponsiveness (AHR) in mice, and document a novel mechanisminvolving IL-23 and elements of the complement system of the immuneresponse.

    S. Lajoie, et al., "Complement-mediated regulation of the IL-17Aaxis is a central genetic determinant of the severity ofexperimental allergic asthma," Nat Immunol, 11(10):928-35, 2010.Evaluated by: Thirumalai Ramalingam and Thomas Wynn, NationalInstitutes of Health; Sarah Gaffen, University of Pittsburgh. FreeF1000 Evaluation

    The F1000 Top 7 is a snapshot of the highest ranked articles from a30-day period on Faculty of 1000 Immunology, as calculated onNovember 19, 2010. Faculty Members evaluate and rate the mostimportant papers in their field. To see the latest rankings, searchthe database, and read daily evaluations, visit http://f1000.com.
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